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Lagunas de ECUASAL

Site Facts

Country, State, Province/Region:

Ecuador, Province of Santa Elena

Relative Location:

The Salinas salt production plant is 5 minutes from the city of Salinas. Pacoa is 15km northeast of the city of Santa Elena


Salt production plant of Salinas: 02º 13´S 80º58´O,
Salt production plant of Pacoa: 02º 05´S 80º44´O


Site of Regional Importance

Basis for Designation:

More than 20,000 shorebirds per year


Salt production plant of Salinas: 600 ha,
Salt production plant of Pacoa: 900 ha


16 January 2007

Site Owner/Steward:

Ecuatoriana de Sal y Productos Químicos C.A. Ecuasal

Site Partners:

Aves & Conservación Museum of Whales in Salinas
State University of the Península of Santa Elena (UPSE)

Human Population within 100 km:

200,000 people


Ecuatoriana de Sal y Productos Químicos C.A.

Aves & Conservación
Ana Agreda Coordinadora Proyecto Salinas de Ecuasal


Ecuasal artificial salt lakes were made by man in the 1960s to produce salt for both industry and human consumption. Around 70% of the salt used in Ecuador comes from the Ecuasal salt lakes. Salt is obtained by evaporation of seawater that circulates within a complex of evaporation ponds of large extension (> 40 ha) to reach the appropriate density for crystallization. The salt lakes are an artificial ecosystem where biotic communities of microinvertebrates outcrop in a hypersaline gradient (Agreda 2012). The scenery at the salt lakes is monotonous and simple, characterized by extensive evaporation ponds that are intersected by dykes. The salt lakes are located along an extensive White sand beach called “Mar Bravo”, named for its heavy swell. Ecuasal is a stopover site for thousands of boreal migrants. More than 100,000 aquatic birds, including migratory and resident species, arrive every year to Ecuasal. For this reason, it is recognized as a priority site for shorebirds on the Pacific coast of South America.

Ecuasal records the presence of migratory neartic birdfauna among which are 23 species of shorebirds, three gulls (Leucophaeus atricilla, L. pipixcan, Larus delawarensis), six terns and two duck species (Anas discors and A. clypeata). This birdfauna uses the salt lakes as refuge, wintering or stopover site. The salt lakes cover an effective area of 1300 has and are the largest artificial wetlands in Ecuador. During the winter migration Ecuasal receives 59,500 Wilson´s Phalaropes (Phalaropus tricolor), Bird of Conservation Concern (USFWS, 2004), which represents around 5% of the global population of this species estimated in 1,500,000 individuals. These are the highest numbers ever recorded for one migratory species in Ecuador. These wetlands also record the presence of other species of shorebirds, like Semipalmated Sandpiper (Calidris pusilla), Least Sandpiper (Calidris minutilla), Sanderling (C. alba), and Western Sandpiper (Calidris mauri), as well as the near-threatened Chilean Flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis), Peruvian Pelican (Pelecanus thagus) and Elegant Tern (Thalasseus elegans) and the endangered Peruvian Tern (Sternula lorata).

View of the Puntilla de Santa Elena and the salt production plant of Ecuasal nearby Salinas. . Ecuasal © 2010

The salt production plants of Ecuasal company are located on the peninsula of Santa Elena, south west Ecuador. The weather in this region of the country is dry and warm, and shows two well defined weather seasons. Data from the Oceanographic Institute of the Ecuadorian Navy (INOCAR for its acronym in spanish) and from the National Metereological and Hydrological Research Institute (INAHMI for its acronym in spanish) of the last decade, indicates that the “summer” also named “garúa season” extends from May to late November and exhibits a low precipitation regime ranging from 0 to 19,7 mm and weather temperature from 20,6 to 25°C; whilst the so called “winter” or rainy season extends from December to April with temperatures ranging from 25 to 28°C and maximum precipitation of 406 mm (in Agreda 2012). Some days in the rainy season can be very hot, reaching up to 32°C due to absence of breeze. Climate of the peninsula of Santa Elena region is influenced by ocean currents. The effect of the cold Humboldt Current flowing north along the west coast of South America from Chile to southwest Ecuador keeps the weather cold during the garúa season, whilst the tropical Equatorial countercurrent flowing south along the west coast from Panamá to Ecuador brings warm water favoring tropical storms. The flow of the cold Humboldt Current favors upwelling along the coastline, turning the southwest Ecuadorian region and the ocean surrounding the Peninsula of Santa Elena into the richest marine environment of the country.

Ecology & Conservation

Ecuasal covers a total extension of 1300 ha. The salt production plants include a large complex of shallow evaporation lakes intersected by narrow dykes and a cristalization pond area. Seawater is pumped into the lake system and circulates within the complex until the concentrated brine precipitates the salt in the cristalization ponds. Both sea salt production plants are located directly at extensive white sand beaches with rocky shores. Soils of coastal region of the Península of Santa Elena including Ecuasal artificial saltlakes (saltmarshes)are typical of arid zones, abundant in salt clays and limestone. Generally saltmarshes’ topography is flat or almost flat, however the area surrounding Pacoa saltmarshes are characterized by low-lying plateaus formed by sedimentary calcareous sandstone (ESPOL 2002). The vegetation cover at Mar Bravo salt lakes is typical of coastal line saltmarshes. An association of different short sized high density shrubs and herbs species forms the vegetative cover, which is also adapted to soils with high concentration of salt (halophite plants). Among the most important plant species are found: Ipomea pes-caprae, Batis maritime, Cryptocarpus pyriformis, Laguncularia racemose and Sesuvium portulacastrum (in Agreda 2012). Classification of vegetative cover at Pacoa saltlakes is of the type Tropical Dessert Scrubland (Cañadas 1983) or Low elevation Dry Scrubland (Sierra et al. 1999). This is a plant community dominated by deciduous spiny shrubs and short trees that form a mid-dense foliage cover and some halophyte plants growing mostly directly at the saltmarshes. Among the most important plant species are found Cordia lutea, Capparis spp., Prosopis juliflora, Croton spp. And at least two species of cactus Hylocereus cf. polyrhizus (Pitajaya) and Armatocereus cf. cartwarightianus (Cardón).

The Ecuasal salt lakes show a salinity gradient that is saltier than sea water. Under these conditions microinvertebrate communities mostly of brine shrimp (Artemia salina) reproduce and outcrop. Other important invertebrates that develop in lakes with high concentrations of salt are brine flies of the family Ephydridae. Milliards of larvae and adults of Ephydra spp. and Artemia salina develop in the evaporation ponds becoming an important food resource to neartic migratory shorebirds.

Importance of the site to migratory birds

Ecuasal receives regularly 23 neartic shorebird species. Among the 10 most common species are found: Tringa melanoleuca (Greater Yellowlegs), T. flavipes (Lesser Yellowlegs), T. semipalmata (Willet), Arenaria interpres (Ruddy Turnstone), Calidris alba (Sanderling), C. pusilla (Semipalmated Sandpiper), C. minutilla (Least Sandpiper), C. himantopus (Stilt Sandpiper), Limnodromus griseus (Short-billed Dowitcher) and Phalaropus tricolor (Wilson´s Phalarope). Additionally, several vagrant species are recorded at Ecuasal, such as: Limosa fedoa (Marbled Godwit), Calidris alpina (Dunlin), and C. canutus (Red Knot). Among the rarest records are found one individual of Calidris ferruginea (Curlew Sandpiper), another of Tryngites subruficollis (Buff-breasted Sandpiper) and one individual of Recurvirostra americana (American Avocet) that stayed several months at the saltlakes in 1992 and two records of Thinocorus rumicivorus (Least Seedsnipe) one in 2003 and a more recent in 2011 (Haase 2011, Agreda et al. 2013).

Of all the neartic migratory shorebird species that arrive in Ecuasal, Phalaropus tricolor is the most abundant. The artificial salt lakes of Ecuasal are a key stopover site in the migratory path of this shorebird. During winter migration, thousands of Wilson´s Phalaropes gather together between August and October every year. A study of the chronology and microhabitat use of the species in 2008, demonstrated that Phalaropes stayed between 15 days up to one month and preferred the evaporation ponds of high salinity, which represent around 25% of the effective area of the wetlands, Phalaropes feed voraciously upon larvae and adults of Artemia salina (Brine Shrimp) and Ephydra spp. (Brine Fly) (Agreda et al. 2009).

Following a table with information on the maximum counts of the most numerous species of shorebirds at Ecuasal, their status is recognized (resident vs. neartic).


Scientific Name

Common Name

Max Count



Phalaropus tricolor

Wilson's Phalarope




Calidris pusilla

Semipalmated Sandpiper




Calidris minutilla

Least Sandpiper




Calidris alba





Limnodromus griseus caurinus

Short-billed Dowitcher




Himantopus mexicanus

Black-necked Stilt




There are other aquatic bird species that visit or inhabit the salt lakes throughout the year some of them also show important numbers. In 2010 a total of 1500 Anas bahamensis (White-cheeked Pintails) were recorded, and in 2014 a maximum count of 1350 individuals of the near-threatened Phoenicopterus chilensis (Chilean Flamingo) was recorded in a monthly census. Other species counted regularly during monthly bird monitoring are the near-threatened Thalasseus elegans (Elegant Tern) and the endangered Sternula lorata (Peruvian Tern).

Some of the species that reproduce at Ecuasal are also abundant, monthly counts in 2011 evidenced up to 550 nesting pairs of Gelochelidon nilotica (Gull-billed Terns), and 1000 nesting pairs of Croicocephalus cirrocephalus (Gray-hooded Gull). Another species which numbers are increasing during reproduction is the Sterna hirundinacea (Southamerican Tern). Nesting records of Larus dominicanus (Kelp Gull) and of the Southamerican Tern at Ecuasal were also the first for the country (Haase 1996, 1997).

Among the terrestrial bird fauna are found several neartic species such as Pandion haliaetus (Osprey), Falco columbarius (Merlin), Falco peregrinus (Peregrine Falcon), Riparia riparia (Sand Martin), and Hirundo rustica (Barn Swallow), Further nine of the 48 endemic bird species of the Tumbesian Region (EBA 045) recognized by BirdLife International (2003) have been recorded, among them: Forpus coelestis (Pacific Parrotlet), Caprimulgus anthonyi (Anthony´s Nightjar), Myrmia micrura (Short-tailed Woodstar), Melanopareia elegans (Elegant Crescentchest), Pseudoelaneia leucospodia (Gray-and-white Tyrannulet), Thamnophilus bernardi (Collared Antshrike), Myiodynastes bairdii (Baird´s Flycatcher) and Sicalis taczanowskii (Sulphur-throated Finch).

The bird species list of Ecuasal Artificial Salt Lakes registers a total of 135 species, of them 93 are aquatic and 42 terrestrial (Agreda 2012). New species have been added along the time thanks to the contribution of different ornithologists that visit regularly the lakes (see Agreda 2012, Page 18) and to the input of Ben Haase and F. Hernández-Baquero (2008) first bird list. These two local ornithologists compiled the first official list of the site.

Threats to the shorebirds / Threats to the site

Regardless of their status of private reserve, the artificial salt lakes of Ecuasal are not exempt from threats against the integrity of their aquatic wildlife. Threats can be classified into: 1. Habitat degradation due to urban and industrial development, 2. Expansion or intensification of aquaculture practices, 3. Oil explotation, 4. Artisanal salt production, 5. Invasive species, 6. Human disturbance and 7. Environmental contamination.

Habitat degradation in the surroundings of the salt production plants has increased during the last decade. In Mar Bravo, Salinas, dense urban settlements, some of them irregular, unplanned and even illegitimate, characterize the area of influence. Whilst, in Pacoa, Monteverde, a spiny scrubland vegetative cover survives in a better conservation state and human settlements are more distant.

Another threat is the intensification of aquaculture practices, more specifically development of laboratories for shrimp larva production in the area of influence of the salt lakes. Aquaculture industry in Sta. Elena province develops right at the coast line, as the primary resource for larva production is sea water. The laboratories pump sea water at daily basis, in order to later sterilize and fertilize it for mass production of shrimp larvae of Litopenaeus vannamei (White Shrimp).

Oil explotation in both salt production plants is another treat. There are wells for oil production inside Pacoa, Monteverde that are being exploited by the Ecuadorian company PetroEcuador, whilst in Mar Bravo wells are located to a short distance from the limits of Ecuasal and are exploited by Pacifpetrol (private enterprise). In Mar Bravo, surface outcrop of oil is common on the most southeast section of the production plant, in this area artisanal salt producers cleared out all the vegetation cover in order to dig small ponds and broke the natural seal of surface oil wells. Accidental breakage of seal was a huge problem between 2010 and 2012. During the rainy season of 2012 a lake of several hectares covered the artisanal salt ponds with oil. However, right after the rainy season of that year PetroEcuador initiated a remediation program that included the technical closure of artisanal salt production ponds and setting up sorbent booms across the rain water discharge channels in order to prevent further contamination of the drainage and to avoid the oil to reach the ocean.

Artisanal salt production has been an important economic activity in the province of Sta. Elena, and more specifically in the county of Salinas since the beginning of the 19th century. Nowadays, artisanal salt producers are organized into associations with legal life in order to lease state land to create their ponds, however some artisans are illegitimate and occupy state and private land. Artisanal salt production is not regulated by the Ecuadorian government, the lack of an environmental licensing or/and the lack of a land use plan for the area surrounding the salt lakes, make artisanal salt production become an informal activity.

Among the most important direct anthropic pressures upon the salt lakes within the area of the evaporation ponds are found the entry of outsiders, cyclists, runners, and bathers that use the discharge water channel for recreation purposes (Agreda 2014). It is possible that this type of anthropic disturbance produces a negative impact on the resident aquatic wildlife that nest in the Ecuasal salt lakes. Studies on reproductive success of the Charadrius nivosus occidentalis (Snowy Plover) in Mar Bravo demonstrated that half of the nests found during a reproductive season failed due to presence of dogs and people coming close into contact with the nests (Borbor 2015).

Another threat are artisanal fishermen who enter the evaporation lakes and the water discharge channel with trammels, small fishing nets and fishing lines mostly to fish shrimps and little fish sorts. This activity is intense throughout the year, but is more common during holidays and over the weekends mainly because it is considered a recreational activity (Agreda 2014, 2015). Whole families can participate in artisanal fishery; parents with their children, youngsters in small groups visit the water discharge channels to bath and fish. The total number of people recorded at the end of one year that enter the lakes to fish and bath is over 1000 individuals (Agreda 2014, 2015).

Among the exotic or invasive species that enter the lakes the most conspicuous are domestic dogs, liberated by the illegitimate settlers of Muey (nearby Mar Bravo), stray dogs that roam the highway Salinas – Mar Bravo, and dogs from the laboratories. Dogs become a big problem during the reproductive season of resident bird species. However, the patrolling and surveillance program carried out by Ecuasal personnel has helped a lot to control this problem (Agreda obs. Pers.). Aquatic contamination due to industrial and domestic water discharge into the storm drainage has become a major problem in the last decade. Untreated industrial wastewater of the shrimp laboratories is a focus of organic contamination raising levels of eutrophication and fertilization of the storm drainage. This drainage was built to liberate excessive precipitation during the rainy season especially during El Niño events, and it runs the entire perimeter of the salt lakes. At the moment this is the only drainage that exists to liberate rainwater and wastewater into the ocean, and both the shrimp industry and the human settlements discharge their sewage directly from their houses without any treatment into the drainage.

Inorganic contamination with plastics and domestic waste, exacerbates as well into the storm drainage and the beaches. The mismanagement of solid waste and the lack of a comprehensive integrated waste management in the county results in the large accumulation of inorganics.

Habitat protection measures and conservation efforts

The project “Conserving priority areas for aquatic migratory bird fauna in the Peninsula of Sta. Elena, Salt Lakes of Ecuasal” from Aves y Conservación / BirdLife in Ecuador, has been underway since late 2007. The goal of this project is “Work for the conservation of migratory and resident aquatic birdfauna of Ecuasal and the Peninsula of Santa Elena, and promote this work as a model that reconciles production and conservation”. The project has three major strategic lines of action: 1. Environmental awareness and education directed to local populations, 2. Research and bird population monitoring and 3. Environmental management to reduce threats to the integrity of migratory and resident wildlife populations.

During the initial phase of the project (Phase I 2007-2008) an assessment of the social, economic and cultural context of the site was carried out. Socialization of the goals of the project and identification of stakeholders from local communities was also critical at this initial stage. We stablished the first partnerships and agreements with key institutions of the region. During this phase we carried the first RHRAP Site Assessment Tool (SAT) to gather relevant background information needed to implement management. SAT workshop involved participation of national experts to identify threats and priority conservation actions. From biological perspective, the experts identified also key values or conservation targets/objects of the site and their ecological attributes. We determined that the wintering and transient populations of Phalaropus tricolor (Wilson´s Phalarope), representing approximately 3,5% of the global biogeographic population in Ecuasal, was the most valuable conservation target, since its conservation would also secure the conservation of the rest of the birdfauna components of the ecosystem, that were less abundant. Among the critical ecological attributes needed to support the migratory populations of the conservation object are found the functional communities of Artemia salina, abundance of brine flies, the weather and the sea water flow facilitated by the salt industry.

In October 2008 Ecuasal was officially designated as First Ecuadorian Site of Regional Importance of the Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network (WHSRN) in a formal ceremony attended by the Ministry of Environment of Ecuador and other distinguished local and national governmental officers and WHSRN representatives.

Enforcement of the law.- We have made great efforts to link government organizations with the project. Among the most important partnerships we can recall are the agreement between Aves y Conservación and the National University of Santa Elena (UPSE), and with the Village Council of José Luis Tamayo (Muey); further the project stablished partnerships with the Municipality of Salinas, Municipality of Sta. Elena, Provincial Prefecture of Santa Elena and with the provincial directorate of the Ministry of Environment. All are partners that support the environmental management of the Ecuasal salt lakes.

Nevertheless, management of decentralized autonomous governments has not been enough to reduce and control environmental problems at the local level, mainly due to economic resource limitation and lack of enforcement of the existent laws and ordinances. The Provincial Directorate of the Ministry of Environment in Santa Elena province has strengthened the enforcement of the organic environmental law since 2011 due to its condition of regulatory body for law enforcement. Unfortunately, both centralized and decentralized government agencies are not yet capable to coordinate efforts together and environmental problems have increased in the last five years substantially. It is needed to further articulate efforts that include local stakeholders, communities and non-governmental organizations like Aves y Conservación, to accomplish the goals and secure biodiversity protection and to implement priority conservation actions.

In 2010, Aves y Conservación elaborated the Conservation Plan of the Artificial Salt Lakes of Ecuasal for the period 2012 – 2015 and Carrying Capacity Study. This strategy has received the endorsement of the Ministry of Environment of Ecuador and is the first documentation elaborated for the management of a private reserve. For preparing the management plan, an assessment of the national and international legislation and policy was reviewed. This tool has allowed prioritizing conservation efforts; it has been structured into Overall Politics, Strategic Objectives, Programs and subprograms of work, specific objectives and priority actions. Additionally a logical framework analysis was developed to order implementation of conservation actions, as well as a timetable for the same implementation period.

Implementation of conservation actions identified in the Conservation Plan of Ecuasal.- Between 2012 and 2015, Ecuasal company has been implementing the programs and subprograms of work identified in their Conservation Plan. Main results are the implementation of a Surveillance Program to the limits of salt production plants, training workshops for security personnel of Ecuasal Company on best environmental management practices and awareness of environmental problems involving bird populations. Additionally we developed with support from Ecuasal’s technical staff, several patrolling protocols. Currently the salt lakes count with trained personnel patrolling the limits of the salt production plants day and night. This effort has allowed us to recognize areas and timing of greater vulnerability and major problems occurring at the limits. The project has also designed and post informative signs following RHRAP criteria. Other important efforts done by the Ecuasal Company are the reconstruction and maintenance of guardhouses and access booths.

During the same period, the project implemented other priority actions identified in the Subprogram for Habitat Protection and Restoration. A major activity carried out in 2013 and 2014 was to approach and socialize environmental problems and conservation goals with owners and administrators of shrimp larvae laboratories. We promoted law enforcement to secure environmental licenses and the implementation of best practices management plans, needed to regulate the shrimp larvae production. With this goal in mind we carried out working meetings, workshops, and campaigns to reduce solid waste pollution.

Several of the specific objectives of the Awareness and Environmental Education Program were achieved. The program reached between 2007 and 2014 more than 5000 people from Santa Elena province. During the early phase (2007-2008) we worked with six schools and 415 children received educational talks at their schools and visited the Ecuasal Salt Lakes. During the second phase (2010-2011) we worked with 27 schools from Salinas, Muey and San Pablo cities and 3100 children received educational talks and visited Ecuasal. In 2012-2014 we worked with 29 schools and high schools from Salinas and Muey, and around 5000 children received educational talks and almost 1000 students visited Ecuasal salt lakes. Each year we celebrated the World Bird Festival and coordinated outdoor art events that included music and drama and various contests, the largest event was done in October 2013 and counted with more than 500 children.

Research and monitoring of aquatic bird populations

Since 2010 to our current time the project implements a Research and Monitoring Program clearly defined in the conservation plan. Currently the project runs an internship and scholarship program for university students that want to earn their bachelor degree in Marine Sciences at the National University of Santa Elena. Interns are trained in bird identification techniques and help monitoring aquatic bird populations monthly and biweekly. Three undergraduate students have obtained their degree, research have been carried out on the reproductive success of Charadrius nivosus occidentalis (Snowy Plover), nesting success of sea birds in a mixed colony, chronology and microhabitat use of the Wilson´s Phalarope, and characterization of mixed species flocks of seabirds along the coastline of Santa Elena peninsula. Additionally, the program trains students taking the subject of ornithology, and certified naturalist guides of the province of Sta. Elena on birdwatching and marking and bird banding techniques.

Special Information

Lagunas de ECUASAL: Haven for birds:

Click here to see an article (in Spanish) in the February 25, 2007 issue of “El Universo” (Guyaquil, Ecuador, newspaper).

Click here to download the article in pdf format.

Contact Us

Aves & Conservación - Birdlife en Ecuador
Ana Agreda Coordinadora del Proyecto Salinas - Ecuasal

Ecuatoriana de Sal y Productos Químicos C.A.

Links to Additional Resources


Birds & Conservation - BirdLife in Ecuador

La Fundación Ecuatoriana para el Estudio de Mamíferos Marinos [FEMM]:





Ágreda, A.E., Haase, B., Hernández-Baquero, F. & Villón, R. (2009) Cronología, uso de hábitat y conservación del Falaropo de Wilson Phalaropus tricolor en los humedales de Ecuasal. Pp. 16. En: Freile, J.F., Cisneros-Heredia, D., Ágreda, A.E., Lara, A. & Santander, T. Memorias II Reunión Ecuatoriana de Ornitología, 26 – 28 Agosto de 2009, Guayaquil. Quito - Ecuador: Aves y Conservación, Fundación Numashir, Universidad San Francisco de Quito.


Ágreda, A.E. (2012) Plan de Conservación de las Piscinas Artificiales de Ecuasal período 2012 – 2015 y Estudio de Capacidad de Carga Turística. Aves y Conservación/BirdLife en Ecuador y Ecuatoriana de Sal y Productos Químicos C.A. Guayaquil, Ecuador. Pp. 108.


Ágreda, A.E., Villón, R.W. & Suárez, B. (2013) Noteworthy bird records from the Santa Elena Peninsula and coastal south-west Ecuador. Cotinga 35: 99 – 101.


Ágreda, A.E. (2014) Informe Técnico de Implementación del Plan de Control y Vigilancia de Ecuasal. Programa de Conservación y Subprograma de Fortalecimiento Límitrofe. Plan de Conservación de las Piscinas Artificiales de Ecuasal para el periodo 2012 – 2015. Reporte de implementación # IPC-ECU-SFL-002-2013. Periodo de implementación 2012 – 2013. Aves y Conservación, Ecuatoriana de Sal y Productos Químicos C.A. Salinas, Ecuador. Pp. 25.


Ágreda, A.E. (2015) Informe Técnico de Implementación del Plan de Control y Vigilancia de Ecuasal. Programa de Conservación y Subprograma de Fortalecimiento Limítrofe. Plan de Conservación de las Piscinas Artificiales de Ecuasal para el periodo 2012 – 2015. Reporte de implementación # IPC-ECU-SFL-003-2014. Periodo de implementación Año 2014. Aves y Conservación, Ecuatoriana de Sal y Productos Químicos C.A. Salinas, Ecuador. Pp. 31.


BirdLife International (2003) BirdLife’s online World Bird Database: the site for bird conservation. Versión: 2.0. Cambridge, UK: BirdLife International. Disponible en: [Versión: 04/12/11]


Cañadas, L. (1993) Mapa bioclimático y ecológico de Ecuador. Quito, Ecuador.


Haase, B. (1996) Kelp Gull Larus dominicanus: a new breeding species for Ecuador. Cotinga 5: 73-74


Haase, B.J.M. (1997) The impact of El Niño Southern Oscillation on birds: updated from Ecuador 1997. Cotinga 6:


Haase, B. & Hernández-Baquero, F. (2008) Lista de las aves de Ecuasal. Tríptico de difusión: Ecuasal, hogar de las aves. Ecuasal C.A., Salinas, Ecuador.


Haase, B.J.M. (2011) Aves marinas de Ecuador continental y acuáticas de las piscinas artificiales de Ecuasal. Ed. A. Agreda. Aves y Conservación, BirdLife en Ecuador y Ecuasal C.A. Guayaquil, Ecuador. Pp. 170.


ESPOL, CEDEGE, UFL, PROMSA – MAG (2002) Estudio potencial agroindustrial y exportador de la Península de Santa Elena y de los recursos necesarios para su implantación Disponible en: [Versión: 01/10/10]



Sierra, R., Campos, F. & Chamberlin, J. (1999) Áreas prioritarias para la conservación de la biodiversidad en el Ecuador continental. Ministerio del Ambiente, EcoCiencia & Wildlife Conservation Society. Quito, Ecuador.